The formula suggests, that the actuator stiffness has to be high in comparison with the load to in order to maximize the useable displacement of a piezo stack.
In case of a
spring-type load an actuator stack has to chosen which free displacement is larger by a factor than the maximum given displacement X:
The blocking force of the actuator stack has also to be chosen by the same factor larger than the max load force.
The equilibrium can also be determined graphically in a displacement-force diagram. The following figure explains the case of a soft spring load as well as a stiff load, where resulting displacements are smaller. The dotted lines of load crosses the lines (solid) which represent the actuator at different voltages.